KHARTOUM, 1 August 2019 – For the first time in five years, UNICEF and partners were able to reach nearly 13 million children with vaccination in close cooperation with local health authorities and the World Health Organization including in areas where access was restricted for many years due to insecurity and conflict.
“We welcome the new window of access that allowed to vaccinate children in South Kordofan and the Blue Nile. This will significantly reduce the risk of diseases spreading among children,” said UNICEF Representative in Sudan Abdullah Fadil
Kicking off in April, and despite ongoing socio-political uncertainty in the country, the campaign provided children under the age of 10 with vaccines against measles and polio combined with vitamin A supplement covering 18 states.
Measles is the third cause of mortality among infants in Sudan. While the country has not seen a case of polio for almost nine years, certain factors put it at considerable risk of poliovirus importation and outbreaks.
The risk of vaccine-preventable diseases among children in South Kordofan and Blue Nile States is high due to the decline in immunity due to insecurity and conflict in these areas.
What Are the Risks of Dehydration?
Whether you are working outside, participating in a sport, or simply having a hot day, it’s important to know how to prevent dehydration. The effects of dehydration can range from mild to serious. The symptoms of dehydration can also resemble other health problems. Dehydration can be prevented by drinking a lot of water.
If you are experiencing symptoms of dehydration, such as fatigue, dizziness, headache, or dry mouth, make sure to drink plenty of fluids. You may also need to add electrolytes to your fluids. These will help your body work properly.
Dehydration can occur from vomiting or diarrhea. Children who have diarrhea should drink extra water. You may also need to give your child oral rehydration solution.
If you have a chronic illness, you may not be able to drink enough fluids. This can be caused by your illness, medications, or health condition. If you feel you are dehydrated, you should talk with your doctor.
If you work outside, you may have a higher risk of dehydration. This is because you are more likely to sweat. The fluids you drink should be increased when you are sweating.
Children also lose more water when they are in the hotter weather. They also lose more water when they have a high fever. This is why you should drink more water when you have a fever.
When you are working outdoors, you should also drink more fluids than you normally do. This is especially important if you have been sick. The flu is one of the most common reasons people get dehydrated.
Risks of COVID-19 Infection
Several studies have found that patients with COVID-19 have a higher rate of digestive complications. These symptoms include diarrhea, anorexia, ileus, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. The severity of these symptoms can increase with time.
Researchers at Stanford University discovered that COVID-19 patients shed SARS-CoV-2 RNA in their faeces for months after infection. Approximately half of patients in the study had faecal RNA. It is not yet clear how the virus interacts with the intestinal tissue of COVID-19 patients.
Other studies have found that people with COVID-19 who have digestive symptoms are more likely to have cardiac abnormalities and acute heart damage. They also have a higher rate of death from their condition.
Research published in November 2020 found a connection between COVID-19 GI symptoms and acute respiratory distress. People who develop respiratory distress after developing GI symptoms are at risk of developing pneumonia, respiratory failure, and tracheal intubation.
In a small case series from Wuhan, China, diarrhea was present in 10.8% of patients. The onset of diarrhea was usually between one and eight days after infection. The mean onset was 3.3 days.
Another study found that the ACE2 receptor, which is a protein that helps the virus enter cells, was high in people who had diarrhea. The high levels of the receptor caused inflammation in the small intestine. It is unclear whether COVID-19 can damage the lining of the stomach, making it more susceptible to infections.
In addition, people with COVID-19 may have trouble absorbing fluid and fluid can get into the bloodstream, leading to pneumonia. This is known as post-infectious dysmotility.
Monkeypox: First deaths outside Africa in Brazil and Spain
Brazil and Spain have reported their first monkeypox deaths.
A 41-year-old man in Brazil became the first fatality from the virus outside Africa. Spain announced two deaths soon afterwards – the first in Europe.
Last week, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the monkeypox outbreak a global health emergency.
But infections are usually mild and the risk to the general population is low.
On Friday Brazil’s health ministry said the victim there had suffered from lymphoma and a weakened immune system, and “comorbidities aggravated his condition”.
Brazil has so far reported 1,066 confirmed cases and 513 suspected cases of the virus. Data from Brazil’s health ministry indicates that more than 98% of confirmed cases were in men who have sex with men.
Shortly afterwards, Spain’s health ministry confirmed Europe’s first death from the virus – a patient who suffered from encephalitis.
A second death linked to monkeypox was confirmed by Spanish authorities on Saturday.
The health ministry said that of 3,750 monkeypox patients with available information, 120 or 3.2% had been hospitalised.
According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are 21,148 cases worldwide.
The monkeypox virus is a member of the same family of viruses as smallpox, although it is much less severe and experts say chances of infection are low.
It occurs mostly in remote parts of central and west African countries, near tropical rainforests.
Health officials are recommending people at highest risk of exposure to the virus – including some gay and bisexual men, as well as some healthcare workers – should be offered a vaccine.
Last week, WHO director general Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said declaring the outbreak a global health emergency would help speed up the development of vaccines and the implementation of measures to limit the spread of the virus.
Dr Tedros said the risk of monkeypox is moderate globally, but high in Europe.
But, he added, “this is an outbreak that can be stopped with the right strategies in the right groups”. The WHO is issuing recommendations, which it hopes will spur countries to take action to stop transmission of the virus and protect those most at risk.
Read from: https://www.bbc.com/news/health-62350022
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