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Borno State launches first Malaria Operational Plan, reawakens fight against malaria

Maiduguri, 13 August 2019 – Following recommendations from malaria interventions in Borno State Nige..

Maiduguri, 13 August 2019 – Following recommendations from malaria interventions in Borno State Nigeria, the Malaria Annual Operational Plan (MAOP) was developed and launched on 08 August 2019 with technical support from the World Health Organization (WHO) and partners. Aligned to the National Malaria Strategic Plan (2014 -2020), MAOP was developed through a broad-based stakeholders workshop involving malaria stakeholders, reviewed on different thematic areas and endorsed by the Commissioner for Health and Permanent Secretary, Borno State Ministry of Health.

Speaking during the launch, the Borno state Malaria Programme Manager, Mr Mala Waziri described the MAOP as the first to be endorsed and disseminated in Borno State. “WHO has made us proud by supporting the first ever Malaria Operational Plan right from development, review, printing to dissemination.”

Dr Ibrahim Kida, the Ministerial Secretary Borno State Ministry of Health and Incident Manager of the state, described the launch as “an historic event as stakeholders across the health sector made commitments to use the document as an implementation guide for all malaria programs”. The plan was also described as an advocacy tool for planning domestic funds mobilization.

The MAOP has seven objectives among which are: provide at least 50% of targeted population with appropriate preventive measures by 2020; ensure that all persons with suspected malaria who seek care are tested with Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) or microscopy by 2020 and all persons with confirmed malaria seen in private or public health facilities receive prompt treatment with an effective anti-malarial drug by 2020.

The MAOP will further ensure that at least 50% of the population practice appropriate malaria prevention and management by 2020, ensuring timely availability of appropriate anti-malarial medicines and commodities required for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malaria in Borno State by 2020.

In addition, it seeks to ensure that all health facilities report on key malaria indicators routinely by 2020 and finally strengthen governance and coordination of all stakeholders for effective program implementation towards an A rating by 2020 on a standardized scorecard. These strategic objectives have specific targets and the MAOP takes into account the humanitarian response.

“Malaria remains a leading cause of poor health in Nigeria. According to the 2018 WHO Malaria Report, 53million cases are recorded annually in Nigeria, roughly 1 in 4 persons is infected with malaria contributing 25% of the global burden,” says Dr Nglass Ini Abasi, WHO Malaria Consultant for the North East.

“Furthermore, 81,640 deaths are recorded annually (9 deaths every hour), which accounts for 19% of global malaria deaths (1 in 5 global malaria deaths) and 45% malaria deaths in West Africa. The Nigeria Malaria Strategic Plan (NMSP) 2014-2020 has a goal to reduce malaria burden to pre-elimination levels and bring malaria-related mortality to zero and WHO is working assiduously with Government to ensure the burden is reduced accordingly.”

Results from WHO’s Early Warning, Alert and Response System (EWARS) week 30 report from 223 sites, (including 32 IDP camps) show that malaria was the leading cause of morbidity and mortality accounting for 35% of cases and 46% of reported deaths. In addition, results from the Nigeria Humanitarian Response Strategy (NHRS 2019-2021) indicate 7.1million people are in dire need of healthcare and 6.2million are targeted for immediate attention.

Despite recent improvements, insecurity remains a challenge limiting access to the functional health facilities. Easily preventable and treatable diseases such as malaria, acute respiratory infection and diarrheal diseases account for the greatest proportion of morbidity and mortality among the vulnerable population. Furthermore, Malaria is endemic in North East Nigeria and the transmission is perennial with a marked seasonal peak from July to November every year.

An analysis commissioned by the WHO Global Malaria Programme to guide the next steps in the response to the malaria interventions in the complex humanitarian emergency concluded that malaria is the number one health risk that populations in the affected areas in NE Nigeria are confronting.

“Malaria has not only been the number one cause of morbidity over the past 3years but one can predict with certainty that it is going to be the main cause of disease and death over the coming months unless something drastic is done. With the MAOP launched, WHO Nigeria will continue to work assiduously with Government to tackle the Malaria,” states Dr Nglass.

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Covid: Woman caught virus twice within record 20 days

A 31-year-old healthcare worker caught Covid twice within 20 days – the shortest-known gap between infections, Spanish researchers have claimed.

Tests show the woman was infected with two different variants – Delta in late December and then Omicron in January.

This shows that even if you have had Covid before, you can still be infected again even if fully vaccinated, the researchers say.

Reinfections in the UK require 90 days between positive tests.

Based on that definition, health officials say nearly 900,000 people have potentially been infected twice with Covid up to the start of April.

It is difficult to pin down an exact number, because only whole genome sequencing can confirm the infections are caused by different strains, and very few positive tests go through this process.

The Spaniard did not develop any symptoms after her first positive PCR test, but less than three weeks later she developed a cough and fever which prompted her to take another test.

When the tests were analysed further, they showed the patient had been infected by two different strains of coronavirus.

In a presentation at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, study author Dr. Gemma Recio said the case highlighted that Omicron can “evade the previous immunity acquired either from a natural infection with other variants or from vaccines”.

She said: “In other words, people who have had Covid-19 cannot assume they are protected against reinfection, even if they have been fully vaccinated.

“Nevertheless, both previous infection with other variants and vaccination do seem to partially protect against severe disease and hospitalisation in those with Omicron,” added Dr Recio, from the Institut Catala de Salut, Tarragona in Spain.

She said monitoring reinfections in people who were fully vaccinated was important, and would help the search for variants which evade vaccines.

Covid reinfections rose sharply in December 2021 after the much more infectious Omicron variant emerged, and there was another increase when a slightly different version of it, called BA.2, appeared in early March.

Before that, 1% of all cases recorded in the UK were labelled as second infection – but that has now gone up to 11%.

Most are likely to be people infected by the Alpha or Delta variants and then infected again by the more contagious Omicron.

Scientists predict that eventually everyone will catch Covid twice, and probably many more times over the course of their lifetime.

Read from: https://www.bbc.com/news/health-61161529

 

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Poverty, crime linked to differences in newborns’ brains

Poverty and crime can have devastating effects on a child’s health. But a new study from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis suggests that some environmental factors influence the structure and function of young brains even before babies make their entrances into the world.

A study published online in the journal JAMA Network Open found that MRI scans performed on healthy newborns. At the same time, they slept indicated that babies facing social disadvantages such as poverty tended to be born with smaller brains than babies whose mothers had higher household incomes.

MRI scans of full-term newborns born to mothers living in poverty revealed smaller volumes across the entire brain — including the cortical grey matter, subcortical grey matter and white matter — than found in the brains of babies whose mothers had higher household incomes.

The brain scans, conducted only a few days to weeks after birth, also showed more miniature folding of the brain among infants born to mothers living in poverty. Fewer and shallower folds typically signify brain immaturity. The healthy human brain folds as it grows and develops, providing the cerebral cortex with a more extensive functional surface area.

A second study of data from the same sample of 399 mothers and their babies — this one published online in the journal Biological Psychiatry — reports that pregnant mothers from neighbourhoods with high crime rates gave birth to infants whose brains functioned differently during their first weeks of life than babies born to mothers living in safer neighbourhoods.

Functional MRI scans of babies whose mothers were exposed to crime displayed weaker connections between brain structures that process emotions and structures that help regulate and control those emotions. Maternal stress is believed to be one of the reasons for the weaker connections in the babies’ brains.

“These studies demonstrate that a mother’s experiences during pregnancy can have a major impact on her infant’s brain development,” said Christopher D. Smyser, MD, one of the principal investigators. “Like that old song about how the ‘knee bone is connected to the shin bone,’ there’s a saying about the brain that ‘areas that fire together wire together.’ We’re analysing how brain regions develop and form early functional networks because how those structures develop and work together may impact long-term development and behaviour.”

Babies in the study were born from 2017 through 2020, before the COVID-19 pandemic. Smyser, a professor of neurology, paediatrics and radiology, said that babies are fed when they arrive for scans because they tend to fall asleep after eating to scan newborns during the first few weeks of life successfully. They are then snugly swaddled into blankets and a device that helps keep them comfortable and still. The brain scans take place while they sleep.

In the study involving the effects of poverty, the researchers focused on 280 mothers and their newborns. First author Regina L. Triplett, MD, a postdoctoral fellow in neurology, had expected to find that maternal poverty — referred to in the paper as a social disadvantage — could affect the babies’ developing brains. But she also expected to see the effects of psychosocial stress, which includes measures of adverse life experiences and anxiety and depression.

“Social disadvantage

affected the brain across many of its structures, but there were no significant effects related to psychosocial stress,” Triplett said. “Our concern is that as babies begin life with these smaller brain structures, their brains may not develop as healthy as the brains of babies whose mothers lived in higher-income households.”

In the second study, which implicated living in high-crime neighbourhoods as a factor in weaker functional connections in the brains of newborns, first author Rebecca G. Brady, a graduate student in the university’s Medical Scientist Training Program, found that unlike the effects of poverty, the results of exposure to crime were focused on particular areas of the babies’ brains.

“Instead of a brain-wide effect, living in a high-crime area during pregnancy seems to have more specific effects on the emotion-processing regions of babies’ brains,” Brady said. “We found that this weakening of the functional connections between emotion-processing structures in the babies’ brains was robust when we controlled for other types of adversity, such as poverty. It appears that stresses linked to crime had more specific effects on brain function.”

Reducing poverty and lowering crime rates are well-established goals in public policy and health. And the researchers believe protecting expectant mothers from crime and helping them out of poverty will do more than improve brain growth and connections in their babies. But if social programs that aim to help people reach their full potential are to succeed, the researchers said the policies must focus on assisting people even before they are born.

“Several research projects around the country are now providing money for living expenses to pregnant mothers. Some cities have determined that raising pregnant mothers out of poverty is good public policy,” Smyser said. “The evidence we’re gathering from these studies certainly would support that idea.”

 

Read from: https://www.technology.org/2022/04/13/poverty-crime-change-newborns-brains/

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Urgent recall of Kinder Surprise over fears of contamination

Food Standards Australia has issued an urgent recall of four Kinder products, over fears the chocolate could be contaminated with salmonella.

The Kinder products that have been recalled are:

  • Kinder Easter Basket 120g (6x20g) – best before dates from 7/10/22 up to and including 20/11/22
  • Kinder Mini Eggs Hazelnut 100g – best before dates from 23/8/22 up to and including 13/9/22
  • Kinder Surprise Maxi 100g – best before dates from 23/8/22 up to and including 13/9/22
  • Kinder Surprise Maxi – Natoons 100g – best before dates from 23/8/22 up to and including 13/9/22

The products have been sold nationally at Coles, Woolworths, Target, Kmart, Big W, independent food retailers including IGA and petrol stations, and online.

The Kinder Surprise 20g single and three-pack eggs in white, blue and pink varieties are not affected, as well as all other Kinder products.

They chocolate could potentially cause illness if consumed, with Food Standards Australia telling consumers not to eat it.

The products can be returned to their place of purchase for a full refund.

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