Maiduguri, 13 August 2019 – Following recommendations from malaria interventions in Borno State Nigeria, the Malaria Annual Operational Plan (MAOP) was developed and launched on 08 August 2019 with technical support from the World Health Organization (WHO) and partners. Aligned to the National Malaria Strategic Plan (2014 -2020), MAOP was developed through a broad-based stakeholders workshop involving malaria stakeholders, reviewed on different thematic areas and endorsed by the Commissioner for Health and Permanent Secretary, Borno State Ministry of Health.
Speaking during the launch, the Borno state Malaria Programme Manager, Mr Mala Waziri described the MAOP as the first to be endorsed and disseminated in Borno State. “WHO has made us proud by supporting the first ever Malaria Operational Plan right from development, review, printing to dissemination.”
Dr Ibrahim Kida, the Ministerial Secretary Borno State Ministry of Health and Incident Manager of the state, described the launch as “an historic event as stakeholders across the health sector made commitments to use the document as an implementation guide for all malaria programs”. The plan was also described as an advocacy tool for planning domestic funds mobilization.
The MAOP has seven objectives among which are: provide at least 50% of targeted population with appropriate preventive measures by 2020; ensure that all persons with suspected malaria who seek care are tested with Rapid Diagnostic Test (RDT) or microscopy by 2020 and all persons with confirmed malaria seen in private or public health facilities receive prompt treatment with an effective anti-malarial drug by 2020.
The MAOP will further ensure that at least 50% of the population practice appropriate malaria prevention and management by 2020, ensuring timely availability of appropriate anti-malarial medicines and commodities required for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malaria in Borno State by 2020.
In addition, it seeks to ensure that all health facilities report on key malaria indicators routinely by 2020 and finally strengthen governance and coordination of all stakeholders for effective program implementation towards an A rating by 2020 on a standardized scorecard. These strategic objectives have specific targets and the MAOP takes into account the humanitarian response.
“Malaria remains a leading cause of poor health in Nigeria. According to the 2018 WHO Malaria Report, 53million cases are recorded annually in Nigeria, roughly 1 in 4 persons is infected with malaria contributing 25% of the global burden,” says Dr Nglass Ini Abasi, WHO Malaria Consultant for the North East.
“Furthermore, 81,640 deaths are recorded annually (9 deaths every hour), which accounts for 19% of global malaria deaths (1 in 5 global malaria deaths) and 45% malaria deaths in West Africa. The Nigeria Malaria Strategic Plan (NMSP) 2014-2020 has a goal to reduce malaria burden to pre-elimination levels and bring malaria-related mortality to zero and WHO is working assiduously with Government to ensure the burden is reduced accordingly.”
Results from WHO’s Early Warning, Alert and Response System (EWARS) week 30 report from 223 sites, (including 32 IDP camps) show that malaria was the leading cause of morbidity and mortality accounting for 35% of cases and 46% of reported deaths. In addition, results from the Nigeria Humanitarian Response Strategy (NHRS 2019-2021) indicate 7.1million people are in dire need of healthcare and 6.2million are targeted for immediate attention.
Despite recent improvements, insecurity remains a challenge limiting access to the functional health facilities. Easily preventable and treatable diseases such as malaria, acute respiratory infection and diarrheal diseases account for the greatest proportion of morbidity and mortality among the vulnerable population. Furthermore, Malaria is endemic in North East Nigeria and the transmission is perennial with a marked seasonal peak from July to November every year.
An analysis commissioned by the WHO Global Malaria Programme to guide the next steps in the response to the malaria interventions in the complex humanitarian emergency concluded that malaria is the number one health risk that populations in the affected areas in NE Nigeria are confronting.
“Malaria has not only been the number one cause of morbidity over the past 3years but one can predict with certainty that it is going to be the main cause of disease and death over the coming months unless something drastic is done. With the MAOP launched, WHO Nigeria will continue to work assiduously with Government to tackle the Malaria,” states Dr Nglass.
What Are the Risks of Dehydration?
Whether you are working outside, participating in a sport, or simply having a hot day, it’s important to know how to prevent dehydration. The effects of dehydration can range from mild to serious. The symptoms of dehydration can also resemble other health problems. Dehydration can be prevented by drinking a lot of water.
If you are experiencing symptoms of dehydration, such as fatigue, dizziness, headache, or dry mouth, make sure to drink plenty of fluids. You may also need to add electrolytes to your fluids. These will help your body work properly.
Dehydration can occur from vomiting or diarrhea. Children who have diarrhea should drink extra water. You may also need to give your child oral rehydration solution.
If you have a chronic illness, you may not be able to drink enough fluids. This can be caused by your illness, medications, or health condition. If you feel you are dehydrated, you should talk with your doctor.
If you work outside, you may have a higher risk of dehydration. This is because you are more likely to sweat. The fluids you drink should be increased when you are sweating.
Children also lose more water when they are in the hotter weather. They also lose more water when they have a high fever. This is why you should drink more water when you have a fever.
When you are working outdoors, you should also drink more fluids than you normally do. This is especially important if you have been sick. The flu is one of the most common reasons people get dehydrated.
Risks of COVID-19 Infection
Several studies have found that patients with COVID-19 have a higher rate of digestive complications. These symptoms include diarrhea, anorexia, ileus, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. The severity of these symptoms can increase with time.
Researchers at Stanford University discovered that COVID-19 patients shed SARS-CoV-2 RNA in their faeces for months after infection. Approximately half of patients in the study had faecal RNA. It is not yet clear how the virus interacts with the intestinal tissue of COVID-19 patients.
Other studies have found that people with COVID-19 who have digestive symptoms are more likely to have cardiac abnormalities and acute heart damage. They also have a higher rate of death from their condition.
Research published in November 2020 found a connection between COVID-19 GI symptoms and acute respiratory distress. People who develop respiratory distress after developing GI symptoms are at risk of developing pneumonia, respiratory failure, and tracheal intubation.
In a small case series from Wuhan, China, diarrhea was present in 10.8% of patients. The onset of diarrhea was usually between one and eight days after infection. The mean onset was 3.3 days.
Another study found that the ACE2 receptor, which is a protein that helps the virus enter cells, was high in people who had diarrhea. The high levels of the receptor caused inflammation in the small intestine. It is unclear whether COVID-19 can damage the lining of the stomach, making it more susceptible to infections.
In addition, people with COVID-19 may have trouble absorbing fluid and fluid can get into the bloodstream, leading to pneumonia. This is known as post-infectious dysmotility.
Monkeypox: First deaths outside Africa in Brazil and Spain
Brazil and Spain have reported their first monkeypox deaths.
A 41-year-old man in Brazil became the first fatality from the virus outside Africa. Spain announced two deaths soon afterwards – the first in Europe.
Last week, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the monkeypox outbreak a global health emergency.
But infections are usually mild and the risk to the general population is low.
On Friday Brazil’s health ministry said the victim there had suffered from lymphoma and a weakened immune system, and “comorbidities aggravated his condition”.
Brazil has so far reported 1,066 confirmed cases and 513 suspected cases of the virus. Data from Brazil’s health ministry indicates that more than 98% of confirmed cases were in men who have sex with men.
Shortly afterwards, Spain’s health ministry confirmed Europe’s first death from the virus – a patient who suffered from encephalitis.
A second death linked to monkeypox was confirmed by Spanish authorities on Saturday.
The health ministry said that of 3,750 monkeypox patients with available information, 120 or 3.2% had been hospitalised.
According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are 21,148 cases worldwide.
The monkeypox virus is a member of the same family of viruses as smallpox, although it is much less severe and experts say chances of infection are low.
It occurs mostly in remote parts of central and west African countries, near tropical rainforests.
Health officials are recommending people at highest risk of exposure to the virus – including some gay and bisexual men, as well as some healthcare workers – should be offered a vaccine.
Last week, WHO director general Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said declaring the outbreak a global health emergency would help speed up the development of vaccines and the implementation of measures to limit the spread of the virus.
Dr Tedros said the risk of monkeypox is moderate globally, but high in Europe.
But, he added, “this is an outbreak that can be stopped with the right strategies in the right groups”. The WHO is issuing recommendations, which it hopes will spur countries to take action to stop transmission of the virus and protect those most at risk.
Read from: https://www.bbc.com/news/health-62350022
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