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Monkeypox: First deaths outside Africa in Brazil and Spain

Brazil and Spain have reported their first monkeypox deaths.

A 41-year-old man in Brazil became the first fatality from the virus outside Africa. Spain announced two deaths soon afterwards – the first in Europe.

Last week, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the monkeypox outbreak a global health emergency.

But infections are usually mild and the risk to the general population is low.

On Friday Brazil’s health ministry said the victim there had suffered from lymphoma and a weakened immune system, and “comorbidities aggravated his condition”.

Brazil has so far reported 1,066 confirmed cases and 513 suspected cases of the virus. Data from Brazil’s health ministry indicates that more than 98% of confirmed cases were in men who have sex with men.

Shortly afterwards, Spain’s health ministry confirmed Europe’s first death from the virus – a patient who suffered from encephalitis.

A second death linked to monkeypox was confirmed by Spanish authorities on Saturday.

The health ministry said that of 3,750 monkeypox patients with available information, 120 or 3.2% had been hospitalised.

According to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, there are 21,148 cases worldwide.

The monkeypox virus is a member of the same family of viruses as smallpox, although it is much less severe and experts say chances of infection are low.

It occurs mostly in remote parts of central and west African countries, near tropical rainforests.

Health officials are recommending people at highest risk of exposure to the virus – including some gay and bisexual men, as well as some healthcare workers – should be offered a vaccine.

Last week, WHO director general Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said declaring the outbreak a global health emergency would help speed up the development of vaccines and the implementation of measures to limit the spread of the virus.

Dr Tedros said the risk of monkeypox is moderate globally, but high in Europe.

But, he added, “this is an outbreak that can be stopped with the right strategies in the right groups”. The WHO is issuing recommendations, which it hopes will spur countries to take action to stop transmission of the virus and protect those most at risk.

 

Read from: https://www.bbc.com/news/health-62350022

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What Are the Risks of Dehydration?

 

Whether you are working outside, participating in a sport, or simply having a hot day, it’s important to know how to prevent dehydration. The effects of dehydration can range from mild to serious. The symptoms of dehydration can also resemble other health problems. Dehydration can be prevented by drinking a lot of water.

If you are experiencing symptoms of dehydration, such as fatigue, dizziness, headache, or dry mouth, make sure to drink plenty of fluids. You may also need to add electrolytes to your fluids. These will help your body work properly.

Dehydration can occur from vomiting or diarrhea. Children who have diarrhea should drink extra water. You may also need to give your child oral rehydration solution.

If you have a chronic illness, you may not be able to drink enough fluids. This can be caused by your illness, medications, or health condition. If you feel you are dehydrated, you should talk with your doctor.

If you work outside, you may have a higher risk of dehydration. This is because you are more likely to sweat. The fluids you drink should be increased when you are sweating.

Children also lose more water when they are in the hotter weather. They also lose more water when they have a high fever. This is why you should drink more water when you have a fever.

When you are working outdoors, you should also drink more fluids than you normally do. This is especially important if you have been sick. The flu is one of the most common reasons people get dehydrated.

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Risks of COVID-19 Infection

 

Several studies have found that patients with COVID-19 have a higher rate of digestive complications. These symptoms include diarrhea, anorexia, ileus, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. The severity of these symptoms can increase with time.

Researchers at Stanford University discovered that COVID-19 patients shed SARS-CoV-2 RNA in their faeces for months after infection. Approximately half of patients in the study had faecal RNA. It is not yet clear how the virus interacts with the intestinal tissue of COVID-19 patients.

Other studies have found that people with COVID-19 who have digestive symptoms are more likely to have cardiac abnormalities and acute heart damage. They also have a higher rate of death from their condition.

Research published in November 2020 found a connection between COVID-19 GI symptoms and acute respiratory distress. People who develop respiratory distress after developing GI symptoms are at risk of developing pneumonia, respiratory failure, and tracheal intubation.

In a small case series from Wuhan, China, diarrhea was present in 10.8% of patients. The onset of diarrhea was usually between one and eight days after infection. The mean onset was 3.3 days.

Another study found that the ACE2 receptor, which is a protein that helps the virus enter cells, was high in people who had diarrhea. The high levels of the receptor caused inflammation in the small intestine. It is unclear whether COVID-19 can damage the lining of the stomach, making it more susceptible to infections.

In addition, people with COVID-19 may have trouble absorbing fluid and fluid can get into the bloodstream, leading to pneumonia. This is known as post-infectious dysmotility.

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Covid: Woman caught virus twice within record 20 days

A 31-year-old healthcare worker caught Covid twice within 20 days – the shortest-known gap between infections, Spanish researchers have claimed.

Tests show the woman was infected with two different variants – Delta in late December and then Omicron in January.

This shows that even if you have had Covid before, you can still be infected again even if fully vaccinated, the researchers say.

Reinfections in the UK require 90 days between positive tests.

Based on that definition, health officials say nearly 900,000 people have potentially been infected twice with Covid up to the start of April.

It is difficult to pin down an exact number, because only whole genome sequencing can confirm the infections are caused by different strains, and very few positive tests go through this process.

The Spaniard did not develop any symptoms after her first positive PCR test, but less than three weeks later she developed a cough and fever which prompted her to take another test.

When the tests were analysed further, they showed the patient had been infected by two different strains of coronavirus.

In a presentation at the European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, study author Dr. Gemma Recio said the case highlighted that Omicron can “evade the previous immunity acquired either from a natural infection with other variants or from vaccines”.

She said: “In other words, people who have had Covid-19 cannot assume they are protected against reinfection, even if they have been fully vaccinated.

“Nevertheless, both previous infection with other variants and vaccination do seem to partially protect against severe disease and hospitalisation in those with Omicron,” added Dr Recio, from the Institut Catala de Salut, Tarragona in Spain.

She said monitoring reinfections in people who were fully vaccinated was important, and would help the search for variants which evade vaccines.

Covid reinfections rose sharply in December 2021 after the much more infectious Omicron variant emerged, and there was another increase when a slightly different version of it, called BA.2, appeared in early March.

Before that, 1% of all cases recorded in the UK were labelled as second infection – but that has now gone up to 11%.

Most are likely to be people infected by the Alpha or Delta variants and then infected again by the more contagious Omicron.

Scientists predict that eventually everyone will catch Covid twice, and probably many more times over the course of their lifetime.

Read from: https://www.bbc.com/news/health-61161529

 

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