(includes boroughs, districts, urban agglomerations, etc.). mi.) New Guinea (Tok Pisin: Niugini; Hiri Motu: Niu Gini; Indonesian: Papua, historically Irian) is the world's second-largest island and, with an area of 785,753 km2 (303,381 sq mi), the largest island in the Southern Hemisphere. It is isolated by the Arafura Sea to the west, and the Torres Strait and Coral Sea to the east. Looking back, in the year of 1960, Papua New Guinea had a population of 2.3 million people. New Guinea, the second largest island in the world, is home to one of the last great expanses of tropical rainforest as well as some of the world's most traditional forest dwellers, some of whom have had little or no contact with the outside world (as of 2010, 44 groups in Indonesian Papua are estimated remain uncontacted). During World War I, Australian forces seized German New Guinea, which in 1920 became the Territory of New Guinea, to be administered by Australia under a League of Nations mandate. When world sea levels were low, the two shared shorelines (which now lie 100 to 140 metres below sea level),[11] and combined with lands now inundated into the tectonic continent of Sahul,[12][13] also known as Greater Australia. Key Statistics. Hope (2006). The separation is not merely linguistic; warfare among societies was a factor in the evolution of the men's house: separate housing of groups of adult men, from the single-family houses of the women and children, for mutual protection from other tribal groups. [citation needed], There has been resistance to Indonesian integration and occupation,[22] both through civil disobedience (such as Morning Star flag raising ceremonies) and via the formation of the Organisasi Papua Merdeka (OPM, or Free Papua Movement) in 1965. Most societies practice agriculture, supplemented by hunting and gathering. 2.3 in Marshall, A.J., and Beehler, B.M. Pig-based trade between the groups and pig-based feasts are a common theme with the other peoples of southeast Asia and Oceania. The population density of Papua New Guinea has changed from 7.3 in 1980 to 19.0 in 2019. When the Portuguese and Spanish explorers arrived in the island via the Spice Islands, they also referred to the island as Papua. [2] Its etymology is unclear;[2] one theory states that it derived from Tidore, the language used by the Sultanate of Tidore, which controlled parts of the island's coastal region. Mainland Papua New Guinea reaches its maximum north-south expanse of some 510 miles (820 km) along its western border with Indonesian Papua. [12] Then, at a 1975 conference and consequent publication,[13] they extended the name Sahul from its previous use for just the Sahul Shelf to cover the continent.[12]. Papua New Guinea has a young population. It has increased by 40% and at average annual growth rate 3.1% since the last census in 2000. On 1 October 1962, the Dutch handed over the territory to the United Nations Temporary Executive Authority, until 1 May 1963, when Indonesia took control. Source United Nations Population Division . Papua New Guinea population density is 19.6 people per square kilometer (50.6/mi 2) as of January 2021. The highlands, northern and eastern parts of the island became key battlefields in the South West Pacific Theatre of World War II. The island of New Guinea is divided politically into roughly equal halves across a north-south line: The current population of the island of New Guinea is about eleven million. The ancestral Austronesian peoples are believed to have arrived considerably later, approximately 3,500 years ago, as part of a gradual seafaring migration from Southeast Asia, possibly originating in Taiwan. Except in high elevations, most areas possess a warm humid climate throughout the year, with some seasonal variation associated with the northeast monsoon season. Top 20; Top 100; All; Rank City Population, Urban Area Population, City; 1: Conakry: 1,966,561: 1,767,200: Map of Guinea. In the period from 1998 to 2008, conservationists identified 1,060 new species in New Guinea, including 218 plants, 43 reptiles, 12 mammals, 580 invertebrates, 134 amphibians, 2 birds and 71 fish. 1961 - First elections involving indigenous population. [citation needed] When first flown over by aircraft, numerous settlements with agricultural terraces and stockades were observed. The entire coral area covers 18 million hectares off a peninsula in northwest New Guinea. Although the rest of the Dutch East Indies achieved independence as Indonesia on 27 December 1949, the Netherlands regained control of western New Guinea. These were the Austronesian people, who had spread down from Taiwan, through the South-east Asian archipelago, colonising many of the islands on the way. They later used this name only to refer to islands off the north coast of Papua proper, the Schouten Islands or Biak Island. Highly divergent molecular variants of human T-lymphotropic virus type I from isolated populations in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, A Gessian, R Yanagihara, G Franchini, R M Garruto, C L Jenkins, A B Ajdukiewicz, R C Gallo, and D C Gajdusek, PNAS September 1, 1991 vol. Graph; Table Summary Figures. 17 7694–7698. [31] Sugarcane was cultivated for the first time in New Guinea around 6000 BC.[32]. All Countries in Africa. The shape of New Guinea is often compared to that of a bird-of-paradise (indigenous to the island), and this results in the usual names for the two extremes of the island: the Bird's Head Peninsula in the northwest (Vogelkop in Dutch, Kepala Burung in Indonesian; also known as the Doberai Peninsula), and the Bird's Tail Peninsula in the southeast (also known as the Papuan Peninsula). In 1905, the British government transferred some administrative responsibility over southeast New Guinea to Australia (which renamed the area "Territory of Papua"); and, in 1906, transferred all remaining responsibility to Australia. Ihre Unabhängigkeit erlangte die ehemalige französische Kolonie am 2. Papua New Guinea is with the bulk of the country part of a larger island. This is an animated population pyramid comparison of these two countries' total population by five year age bands from 1950 to 2100. The other indigenous peoples are Austronesians, their ancestors having arrived in the region less than four thousand years ago. Year: as of July 1 of the year indicated. Sugarcanewas cultivated for th… Prentice, M.L. The most startling discovery took place on 4 August 1938, when Richard Archbold discovered the Grand Valley of the Baliem River, which had 50,000 yet-undiscovered Stone Age farmers living in orderly villages. Most of these species are shared, at least in their origin, with the continent of Australia, which was until fairly recent geological times part of the same landmass (see Australia-New Guinea for an overview). Global Rank: Position held by Papua New Guinea in the list of all countries worldwide ranked by population (from the highest population to the lowest population) as of July 1 of the year indicated. The Council decided on the name of West Papua for the territory, along with an emblem, flag, and anthem to complement those of the Netherlands. Located in Melanesia in the southwestern Pacific Ocean, it is separated by the 150-kilometre (81 nmi; 93 mi) wide Torres Strait from the Australian continent. For all other years: average annual numerical change over the preceding five year period. [33] There is evidence that New Guinea gardeners invented crop rotation well before western Europeans. Botanically, New Guinea is considered part of Malesia, a floristic region that extends from the Malay Peninsula across Indonesia to New Guinea and the East Melanesian Islands. Following the return to civil administration after World War II, the Australian section was known as the Territory of Papua-New Guinea from 1945 to 1949 and then as Territory of Papua and New Guinea. and G.S. The tree line is around 4,000 m (13,100 ft) elevation, and the tallest peaks contain equatorial glaciers—which have been retreating since at least 1936. Ch. The population of Papua New Guinea has been gradually slowing or many years and that is expected to continue in the years to come. miles). As of 2020, the Western portion of New Guinea, Papua and West Papua, accounts for 54% of the island's primary forest and about 51% of the island's total tree cover, according to satellite data. Sometimes considered to be the easternmost island of the Indonesian archipelago, it lies north of Australia's Top End, the Gulf of Carpentaria and Cape York Peninsula, and west of the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands archipelago. The island is so large that it is considered 'nearly a continent' in terms of its biological distinctiveness. In the early 1970s, they introduced the term Greater Australia for the Pleistocene continent. 2000, 2011 census 1980, 1990, 2000, 2011 census. Western agronomists still do not understand all of the practices, and it has been noted that native gardeners are as, or even more, successful than most scientific farmers in raising certain crops. lies … These Austronesian migrants are considered the ancestors of most people in insular Southeast Asia, from Sumatra and Java to Borneo and Sulawesi, as well as coastal new Guinea. ), making it the world's most floristically diverse island, surpassing Madagascar (11,488), Borneo (11,165), Java (4,598), and the Philippines (9,432).[26]. Papua New Guinea is one of the most heterogeneous nations in the world. Before about 1930, European maps showed the highlands as uninhabited forests. 2020. The first European contact with New Guinea was by Portuguese and Spanish sailors in the 16th century. Cash crops in Papua New Guinea include coffee, cacao, copra, palm oil, tea, and rubber; skyjack tuna, prawns, and timber are also exported. [7][8][9] Various other smaller mountain ranges occur both north and west of the central ranges. The population of Papua New Guinea is expected to grow by 170,000 in 2021 and reach 9,097,000 in 2022. © Copyright Worldometers.info - All rights reserved -, countries (and dependencies) by population, World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of Papua New Guinea, The population density in Papua New Guinea is 20 per Km. and has areas containing up to 200 people farming a square kilometer of land. In 1606, Luís Vaz de Torres explored the southern coast of New Guinea from Milne Bay to the Gulf of Papua including Orangerie Bay, which he named Bahía de San Lorenzo. Population: Overall total population (both sexes and all ages) in the country as of July 1 of the year indicated, as estimated by the United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Papua New Guinea is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia. World Population: Total World Population as of July 1 of the year indicated. The Austronesian people had technology and skills extremely well adapted to ocean voyaging and Austronesian language speaking people are present along much of the coastal areas and islands of New Guinea. The western half of the island contains the highest mountains in Oceania, with its highest point, Puncak Jaya, reaching an elevation of 4,884 m (16,023 ft). Population Pyramids: Papua New Guinea - 2021. These original inhabitants first arrived in New Guinea at a time (either side of the Last Glacial Maximum, approx 21,000 years ago) when the island was connected to the Australian continent via a land bridge, forming the landmass of Sahul. In absolute numbers a total of 2,084,538 persons were added to the population during the last 11 years. These funds will support implementation of the new national economic and social development plan. National Statistics Office website. It is an important center of trade, and in recent years has seen significant population growth. [3] The name appears to come from the words papo (to unite) and ua (negation), which means "not united" or, "territory that geographically is far away (and thus not united)".[3][4]. The name Irian, which was originally favored by natives, is now considered to be a name imposed by the authority of Jakarta.[2]. In 1969, Indonesia, under the 1962 New York Agreement, organised a referendum named the Act of Free Choice, in which hand picked Papuan tribal elders reached a consensus to continue the union with Indonesia. Migration (including immigration and emigration) decreases population by 200 people yearly. "Was Papua New Guinea an Early Agriculture Pioneer?" Density (P/Km²): (Population Density) Population per square Kilometer (Km²). Chart and table of Papua New Guinea population from 1950 to 2021. The lowest point of Papua New Guinea is the Pacific Ocean (0m). Current projections believe that the annual population rate will hit a temporary peak in 2020 at 2.03% before declining nearly a full percentage point over the next 30 years. Papua-Neuguinea ([ˈpaːpua nɔygiˈneːa], Tok Pisin Independen Stet bilong Papua Niugini) ist nach Indonesien und Madagaskar der flächenmäßig drittgrößte Inselstaat der Welt. Singapore: Periplus Editions. The total population in Papua New Guinea was estimated at 8.4 million people in 2019, according to the latest census figures and projections from Trading Economics. Human habitation of New Guinea over tens of thousands of years has led to a great deal of diversity, which was further increased by the later arrival of the Austronesians and the more recent history of European and Asian settlement through events like transmigration. (eds.). The flora of New Guinea is a mixture of many tropical rainforest species with origins in Asia, together with typically Australasian flora. The term Papuan languages refers to an areal grouping, rather than a linguistic one, since so-called Papuan languages comprise hundreds of different languages, most of which are not related.[21]. Oktober 1958. Following Tidore's defeat, much of the territory it claimed in western part of New Guinea came under Dutch rule as part of Dutch East Indies.[39]. The northern lowlands are drained principally by the Mamberamo River and its tributaries on the western side, and by the Sepik on the eastern side. [35], The western part of the island was in contact with kingdoms in other parts of modern-day Indonesia. Pollen studies show that it was adopted during an ancient period of extreme deforestation. [22], Large areas of New Guinea are yet to be explored by scientists and anthropologists. In 1526–27, Portuguese explorer Jorge de Meneses saw the western tip of New Guinea and named it ilhas dos Papuas. Independent State of Papua New Guinea with population statistics, maps, charts, weather and web information. The island of New Guinea lies to the east of the Malay Archipelago, with which it is sometimes included as part of a greater Indo-Australian Archipelago. 88 no. Remains of this agricultural system, in the form of ancient irrigation systems in the highlands of Papua New Guinea, are being studied by archaeologists. The western half, known as Western New Guinea or West Papua,[1] forms a part of Indonesia and is organized as the provinces of Papua and West Papua. When the Dutch colonized this island as part of the Dutch East Indies, they called it Nieuw Guinea. Austronesian-speaking peoples colonized many of the offshore islands to the north and east of New Guinea, such as New Ireland and New Britain, with settlements also on the coastal fringes of the main island in places. About half of the 2.4 million inhabitants of Indonesian Papua are Javanese migrants. On 16 September 1975, Australia granted full independence to Papua New Guinea. The provinces of Papua New Guinea as well as all cities and urban localities. [3] The name is one of several toponyms sharing similar etymologies, ultimately meaning "land of the blacks" or similar meanings, in reference to the dark skin of the inhabitants. %: urban population: total world population as of July 1 of the districts and local-level (... Five year period island via the Spice islands, claimed sovereignty over Various coastal parts modern-day. 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